Avraham Shlonsky

(Machine translated from Russian)

Born in Ukraine, in the village of Kryukovo (now district of Kremenchuk) March 6, 1900 years. He was a relative of the family and childhood Schneerson experienced hobby Habadom, grew up in a family where Zionist beliefs and love of Hebrew combined with revolutionary spirit and love of Russian literature. He was educated in the reformed Heder; in 1913-1914 years studied at the "Herzliya in Tel Aviv. At the beginning of the 1 St world war went on vacation to a family in 1923 and left to study at the gymnasium in Yiddish, which were evacuated from Vilnius in Ekaterinoslav. During the civil war witnessed pogroms and harassment of Jews.

In 1921, after months of wandering in Ukraine, Russia, Lithuania arrived in Eretz Israel. He worked on road construction in Haifa, Tel Aviv, Jerusalem, built the Afula-Nazareth. Mastered the Jezreel valley in Kibbutz Ein Harod. In the year 1922 he settled in Tel Aviv, with the intention to live a literary work, but first worked as a construction worker and published his poems and articles on literature in the journal Revolutionary modernist direction "Hedim." In 1924 year went to Paris, where he first encountered the life of the big city and became acquainted with the poetry of French symbolism. After his return to Tel Aviv in 1925 was an employee of the newspaper Davar "(translated into Hebrew, edited literary application), but was sold with the Chief Editor of b. Kacnel′sonom views on literature of the labor movement and left the newspaper. In 1926-32 years together with e. Štejnmanom produced literary weekly Union Hebrew writers of Eretz Israel "Ketuvim", where the printed works of various literary genres: from traditional descriptions of Hedera and town until revolutionary pamphlets and Zionist poems novice authors. A year later "Ketuvim" seceded from the Union of Hebrew writers and became Tribune of the new literary generation with Šlënskim headed otmeževavšegosâ from the poetic school, h. n. Bialik. Naukowe cheated on cooperation with Štejnmanom, who was conciliatory position, and he left "Ketuvim. Around Naukowe rallied published in ' Ketuvim ' young poets and critics — group "Âhdav" ("together"), which was to publish the magazine "Turim" (1933-34; 1938-39). The authors of this magazine have searched for new ways in the literature and fundamentally avoided topical issues. From 1928 to 1942 he worked as a literary editor Avraham Shlonsky years and led the various headings in the newspaper "HA-arez".

In the year 1939 joined the HA-shomer HA-ca'ir, edited the literary supplement "Dappim Le-sifrut" to the weekly traffic; to work in the edition of Shlonsky drew fellow "Âhdav". Since its founding in 1939 year of publishing house "Sifriât po'alim" was his employee, has worked in the publishing house until the end of his life. During the years of World War 2 Shlonsky mainly translations, especially of Soviet literature, because now belonged to the USSR as the Chief defender of the world from fascism. Shlonsky published also a literary magazine "Itim" (1946-48) and Almanac "Orlogin" (13 episodes, 1950-57).

The first publications of Silesian-youthful poem "bi-WIR jeuš" ("in despair", 1919) and the first book is "Dvay" ("Sorrow", 1924; two dramatic poems) is revealed about finding their way in the literature. In 1920-ies Shlonsky wrote poetic cycles autobiographical nature of Ukraine ("Stam"/"just like that"/"be-hofzi"/"Hasty"/"Ârid"/"fair"); about the time of the development of the land of Israel ("Gilboa"; Russian translation — publishing house "Aliya Library", Jer., 1991) and disappointments in Tel Aviv (Lech Lech "/" Go. "); These cycles have compiled a book called "BA-Gilgal (" Whirl ", 1927). Almost all of them written in akcentnym verse, gravitate towards deklamacionnoj rhetoric with accented aškenazskim, giperbolami and bibleizmami abound; Shlonsky unexpected images intentionally èpatiruet reader. Early creativity Naukowe otpečatokrusskogo imažinizma bears and Futurism. Eseninskim lyricism imbued with book of poems "Les-Abba-IMMA" ("dad with mom", 1927), describes the neustroennuû and spirited life enthusiasts of the third aliyah.

Book of poems "be-El HA-yamim" ("these days", 1930) marks the final transition to sefardskomu Naukowe pronunciation, as well as mastery of orderly strofikoj and metric. Images of Jewish tradition and rural landscapes Eretz Israel are woven with images of European "nation", as if heralding a move to the poetics of the next book is "Avnei bohu (" Stones of chaos ", 1933), opening a new era in the history of literature in Hebrew — the era of the so-called Israeli symbolism. Zamyslennaâ as a great poem, a book composed of cycles of lyrical poems that describe the State of mind of the Jewish experience and, for the first time plunged provincials in multilayered urban structure of Paris (in 1930 and 1932 respectively Shlonsky twice travelled to the capitals of Europe). Shlonsky was first mastered Hebrew images "monsters" of the big city: tramways, tunnels, embankments night is home to prostitutes and suicide bombers. Shlonsky virtuosity demonstrated rhyming and zvukopis′, in which the phonetic consonance dictate a semantic perspective of the verse. No book related topics of Zionism, its appearance in literature in Hebrew claimed samodovleûŝuû the value of art and poetic skill. It provoked contradictory reactions and served as a model for such poets as n. Alterman, Leah Goldberg, and others.

Book of poems "Shira HA-mappolet ve-HA-piûs" ("Poems of the collapse and reconciliation", 1938) reproduces the impressions from the trip and to Czechoslovakia Naukowe France. The dominant theme is fear: originally from Leo Tolstoy and his in an epigraph "square Moon" is enriched by the meaning of the word "square" of the Jerusalem Talmud ("no square with the creation of the world ... There is no square in man",., ned. 3:2), where it is associated with the destructive function a person in the world. The square of the train window, squares of squares, squares nation swastikas are poet foreboding ills, which resurrects a memory of their experiences. The piece is full of motifs from earlier books that show some oskudenii poetic imagination Naukowe during this period. The following books of poetry "Al Miletus" ("be blessed abundance", 1947), and "Avnei gwil" ("Primeval", 1960) developed the reassuring theme harmony of human and the universe in the new Union, this former "in the beginning" and interrupted the development of civilization. Cross-cutting motives they brought tree field as an allegory of human and motherhood as a catch-all category and as a source of happiness. Style Naukowe gravitates in these books to the parable, to transparent your comparison, compiled from the metaphorical paintings.

Poems Naukowe translated into different languages.

Shlonsky is an unsurpassed master of poetic translation from Russian, primarily the works of a. s. Pushkin. Translation of "Eugene Onegin" (1 St Edition-1937; 6-I revision and notes — 1966; in 1999 in Jerusalem to the 200-year anniversary of a. s. Pushkin first translation Naukowe was issued with a parallel Russian text; edited by s. Švarcbanda) with meticulous precision and stylistic richness of rhythmic plays original and recognized by critics as the best translation of this work into a foreign language. Shlonsky did much to spread Russian literature and Soviet literature, which influenced the ivritskuû poetry and prose; at its transfers has grown for several generations of Israelis. Among the translations Naukowe: "twelve" (1929) and "Scythians" (1941) and Blok, Boris Godunov, lyrics and "small tragedies" Pushkin, "the new land (podnyataya tselina)" (1935) and "quiet flows the Don" (1953-58) m. sholokhov, i. Babel, Bianchi, plays n. Gogol ("Auditor", 1935, and "marriage", 1944), a. Chekhov, Gorky and Ostrovsky, and many others. Event in the life of the Yishuv was the release of the book "Shirat Set" (Poetry, 1942) edited by Naukowe and Leah Goldberg.

Shlonsky translated also from Yiddish, including poetry by j. Lejvika and j. Mangera, as well as world classics, in addition to the original take Russian translations, including "Hamlet" (1946) and "King Lear" (1955) by w. Shakespeare, "Till Ulenshpigelja" (1949) s. de Coster. Shlonsky created a school of translation, policy objectives which considered the richness of vocabulary, until the use of neologisms and direct transfer of Russian words; accuracy in conveying the realities, which required an interpreter research; playing different styles of direct speech (for which the Transportation itself often resorted to Aramaic inclusions).

From 1945 onwards Shlonsky elected a member of the Committee of the Hebrew language. Great contribution to the development of Hebrew vocabulary Naukowe: so he sharpened the many names of plants and animals (in recent years in connection with the general trend to change the syntax of the Hebrew and to a narrowing of the active vocabulary translations Naukowe and his followers sometimes even seem to be lexically overloaded and quite mysterious).

Avraham shlonsky-author of books for children, including "Alilot Miki Mahu" ("the adventures of Miki Who-It", 1947), "Ani ve-Tali be-ERETZ Ha-Lama" ("me and Tali from Why", 1957), play "Ca-Li-Li" guts (1965), where he revealed his penchant for verbal game, alliteraciâm, fish.

Avraham Shlonsky died in 1973 year in Tel Aviv.