Wonderful Jewish artist Mane-Katz lived in large cities, traveled to different countries. But wherever the Jewish shtettle where he was born and grew up, always remained with him and became alive in in his paintings and sculptures.
Imanuèl′ Katz was born on 5 June 1894 onwards and was the seventh child in the family Lejzera (Eliezer) Katz, who was a modest post of šamesa (Managing Director) inKremenchug synagogue.
Father dreamed that his son would become a Rabbi. Little Imanuèlâ, child was barely four years, gave study in header. A few years later he showed remarkable ability to draw, and at sixteen he leaves the Yeshivas and into the thorny path of the artist.
The father is not the son of mending obstacles, but could not implement it money on the road. Many years later, after becoming famous, Mane Katz with his usual good humour, telling how he went to Vilna with two rubles in his pocket.
But neither in Vilna, nor later in myrhorod young artist does not find the desired atmosphere for him.
Finally, in 1911, he falls into the Kiev School of fine arts, where he is studying for about two years. In 1913, his new friend and patron, Mr. Gurevich advises young artistgo to Paris. And he with two recommendatory letters to Baron Gincburgu and sculptor Nahumu Aronsonu — arrives in the capital of the art world.
19-year-old boy from Kremenchug arrives at the National School of fine arts Professor Fernand Kormonu, known mainly to the fact that he learned how van Gogh and Toulouse Lautrec. To him, but two years ago the Mane Katz, and Chaim Soutine. Mane Katz soul stretched to a new friend, who was a year older.
Considering lessons of Professor useless young men replenish my lost a visit to the Louvre. Both adored Rembrandt for his interest in the human soul, for warm light poured in his paintings. Getting acquainted with contemporary art in the private galleries.
Evenings were dedicated to Montparnasse. Here teems with artistic life. Fiercely argued. That, for example, who are greater — Matisse or Picasso. Painted, sculpted, without departing from the tables.
June 28, 1914 shot rang out in Sarajevo and put an end to all this. Captured universal enthusiasm, Mane Katz also wanted to join the Foreign Legion, but it was not accepted due to "non-military" addition.
With incredible difficulty he reached Russia. But his military rush, fortunately for art,has not been evaluated. This appeared in Petrograd in 1916 year the Jewish society for the encouragement of Arts for his work "self-portrait" and "portrait of sculptor" — artwork already established artist familiar with achievements of modern painting.
This exhibition presented 150 works of painting, sculpture and graphics. Among the participants, Marc Chagall, Nathan Altman and others. Mane Katz met with the famous Mstislav Dobuzhinsky, which drew him to drawing at the École des Beaux-Arts of Countess gagarina.
Stay Mane Katz in Petrograd coincided with active Jewish educators, which Jewish culture experienced an unprecedented boom. In the late 19-century V.v. Stasov in conjunction with Baron David Gincburgom issued a magnificent album "ancient Hebrew ornament of ancient manuscripts. Jewish educators activities attracted the attention of artists to folk art. And here is Nathan Altman makes sketches of medieval tombstones in shepetovka (Ukraine), a friend of Manet Katz on the Kiev School of fine arts of Issachar Rybak, together with El designed by Lisitsky, copies of painting in ancient synagogues of the right-Bank Ukraine. But the deep imprint in the memory of the Mane Katz left, presumably, opened in the Russian capital in year 1915 Jewish National Museum. It was a collection of items "Judaica", collected in special expeditions, supplemented by works from private collections.
Three years spent in Petrograd, played a large role in the formation of a creative personality of the artist. It was then that originated it passion for collecting ancient art objects. Since then, wherever he may be, he collected iudaiku. Many contemporarieswho were lucky enough to visit his shop on Boulevard Raspail in Paris, were amazed,unusual richness of its collection. It was for him a source of inspiration.
The October revolution brought him back to his native city of Kremenchug, where he began teaching drawing. But soon the city became the scene of a fierce fight, moving from hand to hand, from red to white and vice versa. Imanuèl′ realizes that he will never be able to fulfill their artistic ambitions, and in 1921 year left Russia forever.
The second Paris period of the artist's life lasted more than thirty years.
Paris suffered from war, but not enough to lose face. In the Café "House", where Jewish artists gathered, became even larger. Here was mainly young people from Eastern Europe. They lived in poor neighbourhoods on the left bank of the Seine, worked together, shared studios and comprised TU a group of French art, which is called"Jewish school. Representatives of this school featured emotionalism, expressiveness and style, which was given the name — "Expressionism".
Expressionism Mane Katz developed under the influence of the creativity of Chaim Soutine. However, he quickly found his own "line. His images are monumental worksare saturated with pronounced elements of optimism and humor.
In his works, the artist tries to reflect the spiritual life of the Jewish people, the richness of its internal culture.
In art literature Mane Katz called "chronicler of his people". But perhaps even more important, his "paintings of Jewish life" had for the Jews themselves, contributing to the awakening of consciousness, as opposed to the idea of assimilation.
In the early 20-ies of the friend and patron of the Mane Katz — Lupus Blumenfeld introduced artist in the artistic world and arranged his meeting with the famous criticby Woldemar Georges. Specialist high-end praised the work of the young artist, helped arrange his first exhibition at the gallery in May of the year 1923 Charles Persierand himself wrote the preface to the catalogue. It was the first success. The exhibition was visited by Pablo Picasso and carefully considered each painting.
Two years later, in the same Gallery Charles Persier hosted the second exhibition of the work of the Mane Katz. Picasso sent to the exhibition of the famous art dealer (dealer), who on the advice of the great founder of the Cubist acquired from exposurefour canvases. Seven years later, Picasso made a pencil portrait of the Mane Katz. This portrait with the inscription "Mane Katsu from Picasso" (1932) is now in the Museum of modern art, Haifa.
In the year 1928 the artist from Kremenchug first visited Palestine. He talked about his impressions in a letter printed in the newspaper "Dawn", published in Paris under the editorship of Jabotinsky.
"What surprised me," wrote the artist, is how all life here resembles a small Jewish town in Russia. I recalled my childhood ... Saturday Eve is approaching. City (Tel Aviv) freezes, stops movement. You can see the sabbatical candles lit in Windows open. Benign silence extends over the city. I think again about her childhood ...» (September 23, 1928 year).
He is a lifetime memory retains the impressions of the first days of travel across the country. His palette became richer and brighter. After the first visit to Palestine, there are numerous variations of the painting "the wailing wall". Developing and adaptations, this theme will lead to the creation of the eponymous Paintings, for which hewill receive a gold medal at the Paris world exhibition of 1937.
It was an unusually agile, graceful addition person, friendly, with a smile, good ozarâûŝej person with blue eyes, framed by a halo of lush hair. Appearing in a Parisian cafe, he easily moved from one table to another, from an old boyfriend to a new acquaintance. And always he had an inexhaustible supply of funny stories, which he oftenpitched on the go. And first started to laugh.
Then he disappeared for long-indulged in distant travel, which, he said, distracted him from neveselyh of doom.
Some have found that it is similar to Einstein and others on Charlie Chaplin.
Social circle Mane Katz was unusually wide. In 1922 he was sent to Berlin, at that time — the center of Russo-Jewish emigration. There meets with Peretz Markišem, IlyaÈrenburgom, Issaharom fisherman.
He writes expressive pencil portrait of Markiša and butter — portrait of Ilya Erenburg.
World War II began. Mane Katz as a French citizen (from 1927 onwards), Member raised and sent to military school in Paris. Caught with his part in Rouen, he was captured by Germans, but managed to escape. At the cost of enormous efforts made it toAmerica. From 1940 until the end of the war the Mane Katz lived in New York. The first of the artists in 1945 returned to Paris.
During the war the Mane Katz takes the theme of the Holocaust. He creates a work of "refugees" (1941) and all the war years working on canvas "catastrophe". Returning to France on a wall of the prayer house in Nancy, he creates an epic creation "resistance. The Warsaw Ghetto uprising "(1946).
He was first drawn to the scupture In New York.
In the summer of 1946 year artist again travels to Palestine. And two years later, in the midst of the war of independence he brings in Tel Aviv Museum sixty of his works. Despite the shelling, organized in the Museum exhibition was always full of people. Mane Katz captivated the audience with his art and his dedication.
Since that time, he came to Israel each year. Painted landscapes in which the simplest tricks he managed to pass the boundless space of truly cosmic proportions.
The last time he went to Paris and returned to Israel the terminally ill.
Back in 1958, the year when the life of the master, with the municipality of Haifa, agreement was reached on the construction of a House and a workshop for it — in Exchange for the Testament, which the city passed all his works and collected a unique collection of them.
Here, in this House, he spent the last years of his life. September 9, 1962 Goda Mane Katz did not become House-Museum in his name with cast iron grate gate, made in his image, is situated in a picturesque location above the sea
Published from "Jews in the culture of the Russian diaspora" Lubov Latt